从自然主义视角审视《嘉莉妹妹》中小人物嘉莉的命运抗争与幻灭.doc

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Abstract:Capitalism developed highly in America in the late nineteenth century, and the phenomenon of urbanization was especially remarkable. Naturalism originated in this time, which absorbed the theory of Darwinism. Naturalists emphasize truthfulness while they write their works, and they emphasize the animal side of human beings. They also think that environment and heredity are very important, which determine people’s fates. 

Theodore Dreiser is a very famous novelist of American naturalism. He is regarded as the leader of American naturalism. Dreiser writes in a naturalistic style, and he creates a new era in American literature. Dreiser’s first novel Sister Carrie embodies the essence of American naturalistic literature. From the perspective of naturalism, this paper mainly discusses the struggle and disillusionment of Sister Carrie’s fate, and reflects the deep transformations of American lives. Thus it reveals the ugly faces of American capitalist society at that time, and reflects the tragic lives of American people of lower classes and moral deterioration in America at that time. This paper analyzes Sister Carrie from the perspective of naturalism from two aspects: the determination of social environment on the character and instinctive desires of the character.

 

Keywords:  naturalism  Theodore Dreiser  environmental factor  instinctive desire 

 

Contents

Acknowledgements

Abstract

摘要

Chapter One Introduction-1

1.1 Naturalist Theodore Dreiser-1

1.2 The Introduction of Sister Carrie-2

1.3 Literature Review-2

1.4 Naturalism-3

1.5 Purpose of the Paper-4

Chapter Two Environmental Factors-5

2.1 American Industrial Revolution-5

2.1.1 The Development of American Industrial Revolution-5

2.1.2 Carrie’s Change in the Period of American Industrial Revolution-6

2.2 The Prevalence of Consumerism-7

2.2.1 The Rise of American Consumer Culture at the End of 19th Century-7

2.2.2 The Changes of Carrie’s Desire under the Influence of the Consumer Environment-7

Chapter Three Carrie’s Struggle and Disillusionment-9

3.1 Instinctive Desires during the Process of Carrie’s Struggle-9

3.1.1 Desire for Pleasure-9

3.1.2 Desire for Reputation-11

3.2 Reasons of the Disillusionment of Carrie’s Dream-11

3.2.1 Falling into Moral Victim-12

3.2.2 Carrie’s Desire Has Not Been Satisfied-13

Chapter Four Conclusion-15

References-16

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