论鬼文化对清代宗教及民俗的影响.rar

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摘要

   在中华五千年的历史中,存在着一种影响至今的博大精深的文化系统,这就是鬼文化,而经历了千百年的发展与变迁,鬼文化已经不再仅仅限于单纯的灵魂之说,它已经发展成为了一种十分完善的,影响多方面的文化系统。在这些文化系统之中,尤其要数宗教与民俗两大方面最能体现鬼文化的存在。之所以要把宗教与民俗放到一起统一讨论,就是因为在人民的生活中,有许许多多的民俗活动都是受到了宗教的影响而存在的。

   作为中国封建社会的最后一个朝代,由努尔哈赤一手建立的清王朝百年长盛不衰,成为了封建王朝发展的又一个鼎盛时期。因此,在清代无论是宗教以及各种民俗礼仪,都已经是发展到了最为成熟、最为全面的阶段。其中,鬼文化也在清代发展到了一个空前的高度,宗教中对于鬼文化的重视主要体现在敬鬼、祭鬼、打鬼、驱鬼等方面。同样,在民俗方面,鬼文化的影响也十分多,它广泛涉及到婚丧嫁娶,节庆生活等多个方面,鬼文化可以说是无处不在。本文将通过对清代宗教与民俗中鬼文化的介绍,进而分析鬼文化对清代民众的宗教与文化心理的影响与体现以及普通民众的鬼文化心理对于鬼文化发展的作用。 

关键词:鬼文化  宗教  民俗  心理

 

Abstract

   In the Chinese five millennium's histories, has this kind of influence until now broad and profound culture system, this is the clever culture, but has experienced a lot of year development and the vicissitude, the clever culture already no longer merely was restricted in saying of the pure soul, it already developed into one kind perfectly very, affects various cultural system. In these cultural system, especially the factor religion and the folk custom two big aspects most can manifest clever cultural the existence. The reason that must puts the religion and the folk custom to unifies together discusses, is because in people's life, had many folk custom activity to come under the religious influence to exist. 

   As the feudal dynasty's last stage dynasty, Qing Dynasty hundred year prosperous which establishes by Nurhachu one, has become the feudal dynasty development prosperous time, therefore, regardless of being the religion perhaps each kind of folk custom etiquette, already was the development is maturest, the most comprehensive stage. Therefore the clever culture also developed one kind of unprecedented altitude in the Qing Dynasty, in the religion mainly manifested regarding the clever culture's value is respecting the ghost, the sacrifice ghost, to exorcise demons, to expel evil spirits and so on aspects. Similarly in the folk custom aspect, the clever culture's influence is not the tiny bit, regardless of being the weddings and funerals, the festival celebrates the life, the clever culture may say that is ubiquitous. This article through to the Qing Dynasty religion and folk custom clever culture introduction, thus analyzes the clever culture with manifests to the Qing Dynasty people's religion and the folk custom aspect influence as well as to people's religion and the folk custom aspect psychology influence.

Key Words:Clever culture   Religious folk  Custom  Psychology 

 

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